This article explains the new features in Pyramid version 1.3 as compared to its predecessor, Pyramid 1.2. It also documents backwards incompatibilities between the two versions and deprecations added to Pyramid 1.3, as well as software dependency changes and notable documentation additions.
The major feature additions in Pyramid 1.3 follow.
Pyramid continues to run on Python 2, but Pyramid is now also Python 3 compatible. To use Pyramid under Python 3, Python 3.2 or better is required.
Many Pyramid add-ons are already Python 3 compatible. For example, pyramid_debugtoolbar, pyramid_jinja2, pyramid_exclog, pyramid_tm, pyramid_mailer, and pyramid_handlers are all Python 3-ready. But other add-ons are known to work only under Python 2. Also, some scaffolding dependencies (particularly ZODB) do not yet work under Python 3.
Please be patient as we gain full ecosystem support for Python 3. You can see more details about ongoing porting efforts at https://github.com/Pylons/pyramid/wiki/Python-3-Porting .
Python 3 compatibility required dropping some package dependencies and support for older Python versions and platforms. See the “Backwards Incompatibilities” section below for more information.
We’ve replaced the paster command with Pyramid-specific analogues. Why? The libraries that supported the paster command named Paste and PasteScript do not run under Python 3, and we were unwilling to port and maintain them ourselves. As a result, we’ve had to make some changes.
Previously (in Pyramid 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2), you created a Pyramid application using paster create, like so:
$ myvenv/bin/paster create -t pyramid_starter foo
In 1.3, you’re now instead required to create an application using pcreate like so:
$ myvenv/bin/pcreate -s starter foo
pcreate is required to be used for internal Pyramid scaffolding; externally distributed scaffolding may allow for both pcreate and/or paster create.
In previous Pyramid versions, you ran a Pyramid application like so:
$ myvenv/bin/paster serve development.ini
Instead, you now must use the pserve command in 1.3:
$ myvenv/bin/pserve development.ini
The ini configuration file format supported by Pyramid has not changed. As a result, Python 2-only users can install PasteScript manually and use paster serve instead if they like. However, using pserve will work under both Python 2 and Python 3.
Analogues of paster pshell, paster pviews, paster request and paster ptweens also exist under the respective console script names pshell, pviews, prequest and ptweens.
Because the paste.httpserver server we used previously in scaffolds is not Python 3 compatible, we’ve made the default WSGI server used by Pyramid scaffolding the waitress server. The waitress server is both Python 2 and Python 3 compatible.
Once you create a project from a scaffold, its development.ini and production.ini will have the following line:
use = egg:waitress#main
Instead of this (which was the default in older versions):
use = egg:Paste#http
paste.httpserver “helped” by converting header values that were Unicode into strings, which was a feature that subverted the WSGI specification. The waitress server, on the other hand implements the WSGI spec more fully. This specifically may affect you if you are modifying headers on your responses. The following error might be an indicator of this problem: AssertionError: Header values must be strings, please check the type of the header being returned. A common case would be returning Unicode headers instead of string headers.
A new pyramid.compat module was added which provides Python 2/3 straddling support for Pyramid add-ons and development environments.
The latest release of the pyramid debug toolbar (0.9.7+) provides an “Introspection” panel that exposes introspection information to a Pyramid application developer.
New APIs were added to support introspection pyramid.registry.Introspectable, pyramid.config.Configurator.introspector, pyramid.config.Configurator.introspectable, pyramid.registry.Registry.introspector.
If you use a class as a view, you can use the new pyramid.view.view_defaults class decorator on the class to provide defaults to the view configuration information used by every @view_config decorator that decorates a method of that class.
For instance, if you’ve got a class that has methods that represent “REST actions”, all which are mapped to the same route, but different request methods, instead of this:
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from pyramid.view import view_config from pyramid.response import Response class RESTView(object): def __init__(self, request): self.request = request @view_config(route_name='rest', request_method='GET') def get(self): return Response('get') @view_config(route_name='rest', request_method='POST') def post(self): return Response('post') @view_config(route_name='rest', request_method='DELETE') def delete(self): return Response('delete')
You can do this:
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from pyramid.view import view_defaults from pyramid.view import view_config from pyramid.response import Response @view_defaults(route_name='rest') class RESTView(object): def __init__(self, request): self.request = request @view_config(request_method='GET') def get(self): return Response('get') @view_config(request_method='POST') def post(self): return Response('post') @view_config(request_method='DELETE') def delete(self): return Response('delete')
This also works for imperative view configurations that involve a class.
See @view_defaults Class Decorator for more information.
It is now possible to extend a pyramid.request.Request object with property descriptors without having to create a custom request factory. The new method pyramid.config.Configurator.set_request_property() provides an entry point for addons to register properties which will be added to each request. New properties may be reified, effectively caching the return value for the lifetime of the instance. Common use-cases for this would be to get a database connection for the request or identify the current user. The new method pyramid.request.Request.set_property() has been added, as well, but the configurator method should be preferred as it provides conflict detection and consistency in the lifetime of the properties.
Not Found helpers:
Pyramid no longer runs on Python 2.5. This includes the most recent release of Jython and the Python 2.5 version of Google App Engine.
The reason? We could not easily “straddle” Python 2 and 3 versions and support Python 2 versions older than Python 2.6. You will need Python 2.6 or better to run this version of Pyramid. If you need to use Python 2.5, you should use the most recent 1.2.X release of Pyramid.
The names of available scaffolds have changed and the flags supported by pcreate are different than those that were supported by paster create. For example, pyramid_alchemy is now just alchemy.
The paster command is no longer the documented way to create projects, start the server, or run debugging commands. To create projects from scaffolds, paster create is replaced by the pcreate console script. To serve up a project, paster serve is replaced by the pserve console script. New console scripts named pshell, pviews, proutes, and ptweens do what their paster <commandname> equivalents used to do. All relevant narrative documentation has been updated. Rationale: the Paste and PasteScript packages do not run under Python 3.
The default WSGI server run as the result of pserve from newly rendered scaffolding is now the waitress WSGI server instead of the paste.httpserver server. Rationale: the Paste and PasteScript packages do not run under Python 3.
The pshell command (see “paster pshell”) no longer accepts a --disable-ipython command-line argument. Instead, it accepts a -p or --python-shell argument, which can be any of the values python, ipython or bpython.
Removed the pyramid.renderers.renderer_from_name function. It has been deprecated since Pyramid 1.0, and was never an API.
To use ZCML with versions of Pyramid >= 1.3, you will need pyramid_zcml version >= 0.8 and zope.configuration version >= 3.8.0. The pyramid_zcml package version 0.8 is backwards compatible all the way to Pyramid 1.0, so you won’t be warned if you have older versions installed and upgrade Pyramid itself “in-place”; it may simply break instead (particularly if you use ZCML’s includeOverrides directive).
String values passed to Pyramid.request.Request.route_url() or Pyramid.request.Request.route_path() that are meant to replace “remainder” matches will now be URL-quoted except for embedded slashes. For example:
config.add_route('remain', '/foo*remainder') request.route_path('remain', remainder='abc / def') # -> '/foo/abc%20/%20def'
Previously string values passed as remainder replacements were tacked on untouched, without any URL-quoting. But this doesn’t really work logically if the value passed is Unicode (raw unicode cannot be placed in a URL or in a path) and it is inconsistent with the rest of the URL generation machinery if the value is a string (it won’t be quoted unless by the caller).
Some folks will have been relying on the older behavior to tack on query string elements and anchor portions of the URL; sorry, you’ll need to change your code to use the _query and/or _anchor arguments to route_path or route_url to do this now.
If you pass a bytestring that contains non-ASCII characters to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route() as a pattern, it will now fail at startup time. Use Unicode instead.
The path_info route and view predicates now match against request.upath_info (Unicode) rather than request.path_info (indeterminate value based on Python 3 vs. Python 2). This has to be done to normalize matching on Python 2 and Python 3.
The match_param view predicate no longer accepts a dict. This will have no negative affect because the implementation was broken for dict-based arguments.
The pyramid.interfaces.IContextURL interface has been deprecated. People have been instructed to use this to register a resource url adapter in the “Hooks” chapter to use to influence pyramid.request.Request.resource_url() URL generation for resources found via custom traversers since Pyramid 1.0.
The interface still exists and registering an adapter using it as documented in older versions still works, but this interface will be removed from the software after a few major Pyramid releases. You should replace it with an equivalent pyramid.interfaces.IResourceURL adapter, registered using the new pyramid.config.Configurator.add_resource_url_adapter() API. A deprecation warning is now emitted when a pyramid.interfaces.IContextURL adapter is found when pyramid.request.Request.resource_url() is called.
Remove pyramid.config.Configurator.with_context class method. It was never an API, it is only used by pyramid_zcml and its functionality has been moved to that package’s latest release. This means that you’ll need to use the 0.9.2 or later release of pyramid_zcml with this release of Pyramid.
The older deprecated set_notfound_view Configurator method is now an alias for the new add_notfound_view Configurator method. Likewise, the older deprecated set_forbidden_view is now an alias for the new add_forbidden_view Configurator method. This has the following impact: the context sent to views with a (context, request) call signature registered via the set_notfound_view or set_forbidden_view will now be an exception object instead of the actual resource context found. Use request.context to get the actual resource context. It’s also recommended to disuse set_notfound_view in favor of add_notfound_view, and disuse set_forbidden_view in favor of add_forbidden_view despite the aliasing.